Rob and I co-chaired the SIA Experts Panel for Radiation Effects beginning in the early 2000’s that concluded ‘some current civilian ICs may inadvertently meet all five of the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) criteria’ and that there was ‘a strong likelihood that future devices may, possibly with greater frequency, inadvertently pass these criteria.’ This raised the potential that civilian, general-purpose semiconductors, could be controlled as defense articles, subject to much stricter and costly export restrictions – seriously restricting the global competitiveness of the U.S. industry. Rob’s role in this decade-long undertaking was substantial as he led the technical discussions and interacted directly with congressional committees, D.o.C., and D.o.D. agencies to get the ITAR rules changed. In the end, the changes made to the ITAR rules served US semiconductors well as they allowed continued innovation without fear of falling under the ITAR export controls.